By Walter Laqueur
From the most individual historians of our time comes the definitive basic background of the Zionist stream.
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Extra resources for A History of Zionism: From the French Revolution to the Establishment of the State of Israel
It might be easy to bring people out in the name of Islam in order to topple a government but it is virtually impossible to establish a government on the basis of Islam enjoying a consensus from ulama. Furthermore, Shia-Sunni differences often turning violent, ethno-regional divisions within the ulama and, worst of all, Saudi-Iranian competition in Pakistan to carve out favourable constituencies, have all discouraged Pakistanis from making a total commitment to the religio-political parties. 67 Regional parties like the Awami National Party (ANP) or Balochistan Milli Party remain bound by charismatic figures like Khan Abdul Wali Khan and Nawab Akbar Bugti.
The process of national integration was ill-planned, officious and injudicious, with centripetal and centrifugal forces battling within the very corpus of the state which, true to its proto-colonial character, either chose to adopt the role of an indifferent observer or turned partisan. The evolution of the country has been due to the triumph of political processes negotiated through constitutional means in a struggle against the well-entrenched forces of the colonial state and similar blocks. 1 The crisis of governance in Pakistan beginning with the dismissal of Nazim ud-Din as prime minister in 1953 and followed by elected governments until 1993, the use of strong executive orders, long phases of martial law, authoritarianism, further partition of the country and frequent conflict between the centre and the provinces or among ethnic groups, remain 12 Dilemma 13 largely endemic.
It has systematically tried to eliminate opposition from educational institutions and attempted to gain a monopoly over the official and private media by applying pressure. 65 Under the leadership of Qazi Hussain Ahmad, a native Pushtun, the JI appears to have accepted a combination of Islam and nationalism in Pakistani experience, which is a unique ideological shift, though not an openly acknowledged one. However, in the elections of 1993 the JI, despite assuming a populist stance, overwhelmingly lost to the national parties (PPP and Muslim League), confirming that Pakistani voters are not convinced by religio-political parties.
A History of Zionism: From the French Revolution to the Establishment of the State of Israel by Walter Laqueur