By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A historical past of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.
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Additional resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 (History of the Crusades (University of Wisconsin Press))
They found unorganized but formidable and enthusiastic forces ready to repel them. The un ity and determination of Berber and Arab led to the defeat of the Normans after they had occupied the little island and the mainland fortress of Dimas for only four days. True, the Norman navy was not yet fully integrated; sea and land forces did not work well together; the marines especially failed to carry out landing operations under enemy attack. Roger's force seems to have lacked enthusiasm and fighting spirit, while the enemy, on the defensive against Christian invaders, "knew what they were fighting for", and of course represented their victory as a triumph of Islam over Christianity.
I n I 141-1142, with famine and plague harassing the people of Tunisia, Roger demanded that his agents be paid what the emir owed them. When al-l;Iasan declared his insolvency, Roger sent twenty-five ships under the command of George of Antioch, who confiscated Egyptian ships anchored in the harbor of Mahdia and a ship belonging to al-l;Iasan, about to sail for Cairo with gifts for the caliph al-l;Iafiz. Next, Roger forced new ag reements upon al-l;Iasan, attaching so many conditions that, as one Arab author puts it, al-l;Iasan was in the position of Roger's 'ami!.
After several days of plundering, George declared an amnesty and immediately began to fortify and reorganize the place. The capture of Tripoli by the Sicilians made a great impression on Christians and Moslems alike. For the time being, Roger did not follow up his great victory with an attack on Mahdia as might have been expected. The Second Crusade, and his efforts in connection with it, may have had something to do with the delay. But in I I 4 7 famine in North Africa had reached a stage beyond endurance.
A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 (History of the Crusades (University of Wisconsin Press)) by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard