By John M. Levesque
Contents: advent; Supercomputer structure; Fortran; Vectorization of Fortran courses. Index. This publication explains intimately either the underlying structure of present day supercomputers and the way wherein a compiler maps Fortran code onto that structure. most crucial, the constructs fighting complete optimizations are defined, and particular techniques for restructuring a software are supplied
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Extra resources for A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers
The Cray-1, Cray-IS, and Cray-2 each have one path into main memory, and it provides both fetching and storing of data but not both at the same time. The Cray X-MP has two fetch paths and one store path, all of which can operate concurrently. 2 THE VECTOR PROCESSOR 39 The Cray X-MP, with its extra memory paths: • Fetches the vector B(l:64) to a vector register, while simultaneously fetching C(l:64), and, as soon as B(l) and C(l) have arrived, begins adding the vectors together, placing the results in a third vector register while simultaneously storing the results into A(l:64).
Perhaps a more subtle point regarding vector-register length is the startup time to fetch data from main memory to a vector register. ") On the Cray-1 and Cray-lS, startup is seven clock cycles. On the X-MP it is seventeen clock cycles, and the Cray-2 in its initial release has a startup time of 57 clock cycles. Never mind that the clock cycles get progressively shorter on these machines. 89 on the Cray-2, a significant difference in overhead cost. Memory Size. The amount of main memory available on vector processors can affect wall-clock-time performance of Fortran programs, more so than the CPU time for executing any particular program.
What is the Mflop rate for N = 128? c. What would the Mflop rate be for N = 64 if the vector registers were 128 elements long? d. What would the Mflop rate be for N = 128 if the vector registers were 128 elements long? 2 THE VECTOR PROCESSOR 51 e. 5 X 10" 9 sec 7. On the Cray X-MP the second and third strip of 64 can overlap with the preceding strip. 5 X 10~9 sec For the Cray X-MP, answer problems a through d of the preceding exercise. 8. The text discusses two possible methods of vectorizing IF statements on a Cray X-MP.
A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers by John M. Levesque